Directional Radiation Characteristics
|KLIPPEL R&D System|
|Off-axis far field SPL response||NFS, SCN, POL|
|Directional response pattern||NFS, SCN, POL|
|Polar and balloon plots||NFS, SCN, POL|
|Coverage and radiation angle||NFS, SCN, POL|
|Directivity index||NFS, SCN, POL|
|Sound power response||NFS, TRF|
The sound pressure is measured at a defined distance from the speaker in various directions at a spatial resolution. Using spherical coordinates, the angles (θ and ρ) define the measurement point on the measuring axis and the reference axis under free-field conditions. The SPL response versus frequency and the spherical coordinates may be presented as polar, balloon or other 2D or 3D plots. The total acoustic sound power under free-field or half-space free field conditions can be calculated from sound pressure averaged over a large sphere at sufficient spatial resolution or from the sound pressure generated by the loudspeaker under diffuse field conditions. The directivity index describes the ratio (in decibels) of the sound pressure at a point on the reference axis relating to the sound pressure that a point source radiating the same acoustical power as the loudspeaker under test would produce under free-field conditions.
TRF can be used to measure the sound pressure response of a loudspeaker operated under anechoic conditions. Alternatively, the sound pressure of a loudspeaker operated in a diffuse sound field is measured, and the sound power response is calculated considering the reverberation time of the room.
SCN calculates the most important directional characteristics of the radiator using the mechanical vibration and the geometry of the radiator measured with laser scanning technique.
POL module controls the Transfer Function Module (TRF) and turntables to measure the sound pressure response at a defined distance in spherical coordinates.
|Near Field Scanner (NFS)|
The Near-Field-Scanner 3D offers a fully automated acoustic measurement of direct sound radiated from the source under test. The radiated sound is determined in any desired distance and angle in the 3D space outside the scanning surface.
AN 24 Measuring Telecommunication Drivers, Microspeaker, Headphones
AN 26 Cone Vibration and Radiation Diagnostics
AN 38 Near-field Measurement with multiple Drivers and Port
AN 39 Merging Near and Far-field Measurements
AN 41 Measurement at defined terminal voltage
AN 54 Directivity Measurement with Turntables
AN 69 Far Field Measurement using Microphone Arrays
AN 70 Directivity of Speaker Array
Templates of KLIPPEL Products
Name of the Template
TRF SPL + waterfall
Sound pressure level and cumulative decay spectrum
TRF sensitivity (Mic 2)
Calibration of the microphone at IN2 using a pistonphone
TRF true acoustical phase
Total phase without time delay
TRF 3rd oct. spectr. analyzer
Continuous loop measurement giving the spectrum of the signal acquired via IN1 integrated over 1/3 octave
IEC 20.6 Mean SPL
Mean sound pressure level in a stated frequency band according IEC 60268-5 chapter 20.6
IEC 21.2 Frequency Range
Effective frequency range according IEC 60268-5 chapter 21.2
IEC 22.4 Mean Efficiency
Mean efficiency in a frequency band according IEC 60268-5 chapter 22.4
Frequency response smoothness
SPL Merging Near / Farfield
Merges near-field response and far-field response according to Application Note AN 39
Audio Engineering Society
AES2 Recommended practice Specification of Loudspeaker Components Used in Professional Audio and Sound Reinforcement
AES56 Standard on acoustics – Sound source modeling – Loudspeaker polar radiation measurement
Consumer Electronics Association
CEA 2034 Standard Method of Measurement for In-Home Loudspeakers
International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC 60268-5 Sound System Equipment, Part 5: Loudspeakers
Papers and Preprints
Mark R. Gander, “Ground Plane Acoustic Measurement of Loudspeaker Systems, ” J. of Audio Eng. Soc., Volume 30, Issue 10, pp.723-731, October 1982.
W. Ahnert, et al., “Accurate Electroacoustic Prediction Utilizing the Complex Frequency Response of Far-Field Polar Measurements,” presented at the 108th Convention of the Audio Eng. Soc. (February 2000), Paper no. 5129.
W. Klippel, et al., “Distributed Mechanical Parameters of Loudspeakers Part 2: Diagnostics,” J. of Audio Eng. Soc. 57, No. 9, pp. 696-708 (2009 Sept.).
W. Klippel, et al., “Distributed Mechanical Parameters of Loudspeakers Part 1: Measurement,” J. of Audio Eng. Soc. 57, No. 9, pp. 500-511 (2009 Sept.).
J. Baird, et al., “The Analysis, Interaction, and Measurement of Loudspeaker Far-Field Polar Patterns,” presented at 106th Convention of Audio Eng. Soc., May 1999, Paper no. 4949.